- Documentation
- Reference manual
- The SWI-Prolog library
- library(clpfd): CLP(FD): Constraint Logic Programming over Finite Domains
- Introduction
- Arithmetic constraints
- Declarative integer arithmetic
- Example: Factorial relation
- Combinatorial constraints
- Domains
- Example: Sudoku
- Residual goals
- Core relations and search
- Example: Eight queens puzzle
- Optimisation
- Reification
- Enabling monotonic CLP(FD)
- Custom constraints
- Applications
- Acknowledgments
- CLP(FD) predicate index
- Closing and opening words about CLP(FD)

- library(clpfd): CLP(FD): Constraint Logic Programming over Finite Domains

- The SWI-Prolog library
- Packages

- Reference manual

### A.8.8 Residual goals

Here is an example session with a few queries and their answers:

?- X #> 3. X in 4..sup. ?- X #\= 20. X in inf..19\/21..sup. ?- 2*X #= 10. X = 5. ?- X*X #= 144. X in -12\/12. ?- 4*X + 2*Y #= 24, X + Y #= 9, [X,Y] ins 0..sup. X = 3, Y = 6. ?- X #= Y #<==> B, X in 0..3, Y in 4..5. B = 0, X in 0..3, Y in 4..5.

The answers emitted by the toplevel are called *residual programs*,
and the goals that comprise each answer are called **residual goals**.
In each case above, and as for all pure programs, the residual program
is declaratively equivalent to the original query. From the residual
goals, it is clear that the constraint solver has deduced additional
domain restrictions in many cases.

To inspect residual goals, it is best to let the toplevel display them for us. Wrap the call of your predicate into call_residue_vars/2 to make sure that all constrained variables are displayed. To make the constraints a variable is involved in available as a Prolog term for further reasoning within your program, use copy_term/3. For example:

?- X #= Y + Z, X in 0..5, copy_term([X,Y,Z], [X,Y,Z], Gs). Gs = [clpfd: (X in 0..5), clpfd: (Y+Z#=X)], X in 0..5, Y+Z#=X.

This library also provides *reflection* predicates (like fd_dom/2,
fd_size/2 etc.) with
which we can inspect a variable's current domain. These predicates can
be useful if you want to implement your own labeling strategies.