- Documentation
- Reference manual
- The SWI-Prolog library
- library(clpfd): CLP(FD): Constraint Logic Programming over Finite Domains
- Introduction
- Arithmetic constraints
- Declarative integer arithmetic
- Example: Factorial relation
- Combinatorial constraints
- Domains
- Example: Sudoku
- Residual goals
- Core relations and search
- Example: Eight queens puzzle
- Optimisation
- Reification
- Enabling monotonic CLP(FD)
- Custom constraints
- Applications
- Acknowledgments
- CLP(FD) predicate index
- Closing and opening words about CLP(FD)

- library(clpfd): CLP(FD): Constraint Logic Programming over Finite Domains

- The SWI-Prolog library
- Packages

- Reference manual

### A.8.2 Arithmetic constraints

In modern Prolog systems, **arithmetic constraints** subsume and
supersede low-level predicates over integers. The main advantage of
arithmetic constraints is that they are true *relations* and can be
used in all directions. For most programs, arithmetic constraints are
the only predicates you will ever need from this library.

The most important arithmetic constraint is #=/2,
which subsumes both
`(is)/2`

and `(=:=)/2`

over integers. Use #=/2
to make your programs more general.

In total, the arithmetic constraints are:

Expr1 `#=`

Expr2Expr1 equals Expr2 Expr1 `#\=`

Expr2Expr1 is not equal to Expr2 Expr1 `#>=`

Expr2Expr1 is greater than or equal to Expr2 Expr1 `#=<`

Expr2Expr1 is less than or equal to Expr2 Expr1 `#>`

Expr2Expr1 is greater than Expr2 Expr1 `#<`

Expr2Expr1 is less than Expr2

`Expr1` and `Expr2` denote **arithmetic
expressions**, which are:

integerGiven value variableUnknown integer ?( variable)Unknown integer -Expr Unary minus Expr + Expr Addition Expr * Expr Multiplication Expr - Expr Subtraction Expr `^`

ExprExponentiation `min(Expr,Expr)`

Minimum of two expressions `max(Expr,Expr)`

Maximum of two expressions Expr `mod`

ExprModulo induced by floored division Expr `rem`

ExprModulo induced by truncated division `abs(Expr)`

Absolute value Expr `//`

ExprTruncated integer division Expr div Expr Floored integer division

where `Expr` again denotes an arithmetic expression.

The bitwise operations `(\)/1`

, `(/\)/2`

, `(\/)/2`

, `(>>)/2`

,
`(<<)/2`

, `lsb/1`

, `msb/1`

, `popcount/1`

and `(xor)/2`

are also supported.